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University of Forestry - Sofia











By Ventzislav Roumenov Tzvetkov


Faculty number 40184












City of Sofia Checked by:

10.01.2002 .........











AND TOXICOLOGY..........................8









INFECTIOUS DISEASES....................37














My graduate practice was held in the Regional Veterinary Service (RVS) - Sofia. In the current severe economic conditions numerous problems in all sectors of the National Economy encounter. Entirely affected are the areas of the country's economy, including agriculture. For the territory of Sofia this applies to a large extent. On one hand the high prices of fodders, from other the low purchase prices of livestock products, imports from other countries of cheap products and high contamination of the region are among the major causes of poor profitability of livestock in the district. People growing livestock towards other activities, resulting in a reduction of livestock, while a tendency to increase the pets - dogs, cats, parrots and other. In the relatively few left private yards with animals, usually the zoo hygienic requirements are not considered or do not meet the standards. The lack of any architectural model while construction of stables makes difficult, sometimes even impossible maintenance of good hygiene and optimum microclimate - necessary for normal, free from stress factors life of the animals bred. Poor hygiene, high population, great traffic, polluted environment in the region are prerequisites for greater frequency of invasion, surgical and infectious diseases, which imposes more stringent preventive measures, also the most rigorous veterinary-sanitary checks of the products obtained in respect of safety for the consumer. All this requires good organization of individual units as well as mutual coordination between the various structures of the National Veterinary Service (NVS), with the goal of better medical and preventive activities in the region, which is in the interest of the country's economy, therefore each citizen, including the veterinarian.

The practice was held in the period from 16.07.2001 to 21.12.2001. About that time I had the opportunity to accumulate great experience, to know large number of clinical cases, to develop learnt techniques, habits and skills acquired during the terminal education, and also created professional contacts, associated together with the veterinary community, revealed many of the details in the occupation veterinarian. Furthermore I was able to know the business, organization and technical bases of the veterinary-sanitary services of Sofia, the organization of NVS, the work of the inspectors and the flow of information in ascending and descending order in the hierarchy and among different units - scientific, laboratory, medical, prophylactic, commercial, financial and administrative control.

The first part of the practice lasting ten weeks (from 16.07.2001 to 23.09.2001) was hold in the Regional Veterinary Clinic (RVC) - Vrabnitsa. During this time I acquainted with the activity reporting and documentation of RVS, participated active in diagnostic and therapeutic processes, saw the place of the laboratory units in the diagnosis and prevention of various types of diseases. I had the opportunity to visit alone private yards and set diagnosis, taking independent decisions on the direction of therapy and respective prevention of different infectious and invasion diseases. I made prevention with vaccines.

During the second part of the practice lasting three weeks (from 24.09.2001 to 12.10.2001) I was in the headquarters of capitals State Veterinary Sanitary Control (DVSK) Acquainted with the organization, structure and function of DVSK in the implementation of the control of foodstuffs of animal origin, with a view to their quality and safety for the consumer. I traced the records and means of control in various stages through which passes the production before it reaches the consumer. Expert control is performed before and during production in the slaughterhouse in transport with respective means of transport, processing - in the meat processing enterprises, in storage, in refrigerators and stores, and in the final realization commercially. Controlled were as well fodders and fodder supplements and also raw materials included in the production of food products containing animal products.

The last part of the practice lasting ten weeks (from 15.10.2001 to 21.12.2001) placed in the sections of Gorubliane neighborhood with the licensed veterinarian Dr. Daniela Hristova, and also I had the possibility to visit the private office of Dr. Genchev. I have visited many private yards, acquainted with the real situation of private livestock in the area, able to view various solutions for growing a variety of animal species adapted to a greater or lesser degree with the zoo hygienic norms and the actual needs of the different class animals. I participated in mass prophylactic measures. I observed the preparation of the farmers and veterinarian for the upcoming winter season. I had the opportunity to heal various types of animals. I witnessed castration and pruning of hooves. I acquainted with the medicinal fund of private veterinarians, and also the most frequently used consumables.

Thanks to the responsiveness of veterinary practitioners, I believe that the purpose of the practice was achieved for which I sincere gratitude all the unselfish colleagues.















My graduate practice was held in Sofia. On the territory of RVS - Sofia various kinds of animals are grown, despite their significant decrease in recent years. Prevails mostly small livestock, no cooperatives, but there are several farms for cows with 30-40 animals. Tend is to increase the family farms with 10-15 cows on behalf of the stock of pigs decreased by 60% and the approximate number of sheep decreased from 40000 to 30000. Approximate distribution of animals at the types and numbers is as follows:


Species - Estimated total number


Birds - 400,000

Rabbits - 90,000

Dogs (Registered) - 60,000

Pigs - 45,000

Sheep - 30,000

Goat - 18,000

Cattle - 7,000

Horses - 1,100

Apiculture families - 3,000



RVS is directly subordinate to the NVS. It is managed by the Director of RVS, with the help of the chief doctor and chief epizootologist and head of Regional Veterinary Dispensary. In the structure of RVS - Sofia are included: Regional Veterinary Dispensary - Vrabnitsa, District Veterinary Dispensary (DVD) - Vrazhdebna, Gorna Banya and Dragalevtsi, licensed veterinary stations - 22 are included in the territory of Sofia, depot for export of animals, small animals clinic (SAC) - Druzhba, State Veterinary Division - Dondukov, laboratories in regional veterinary dispensary and SAC, private veterinary offices and dispensaries - numbers 153. Unlike other RVS in the structure of RVS - Sofia DVSK is not included. They are directly subordinate to the NVS.

Regional Veterinary Dispensary - Vrabnitsa serves neighborhoods Orlandovtsi, Malashevtsi, Faculty, Filipovtsi, Modern suburb, Vrabnitsa and Lyulin. In Regional Veterinary Dispensary and DVD work state veterinarians. Examinations and operations are charged on state charges. They are self financed by 55% of the cost. The remaining fund is by the budged of NVS. These have included groups for disinfection, disinfection and deratisation (DDD).

Licensed veterinary sectors not covered by Regional Veterinary Dispensary and DVD. They are served by licensed veterinarians to perform the annual immunoprophylactic program, commissioned by NVS. Their doctors are not obliged to work on state charges.

Depot for export of animals is served by state veterinarian, who examines entering and leaving from the country animals, follows their stay during the quarantine period and issues a health certificate.

In SAC mainly small animals are treated - dogs and cats. Faced are other types of patients as well - rabbits, pigeons, canaries, turtles, etc., but these are exceptions.

In the State Veterinary Division - Dondukov is made treatment of small animals and issuing health certificates for them.

The supply of medicines and consumables in state dispensary and clinics are carried out by Government Veterinary Pharmaceutical Supply. Licensed and private practitioners are provided with medicines and supplies themselves.

In the laboratories of RVS and SAC limited researches are performed - mostly parasitological and research for skin diseases and some routine blood examinations. Specific examinations of blood and urine are carried out by the National research and diagnostic veterinary institute (NNIDVMI).

At this stage in the territory of RVS - Sofia there is no rendering plant (Closed doors in 1986). Currently, the carcasses are transported for disposal to the enterprise in Plovdiv or in Bird enterprise - Kostinbrod. For each area is mandatory presence of carcass holding pit.

The activities of licensed veterinarians are controlled by a state veterinarian. Each month meetings are hold at which licensed veterinarians give report, as transmit to the head veterinarian of the region information - 12 VD (Annex 1) and 15 VD, also report for every event held.

In every section the following documentation is kept:

-Ambulatory diary

-Epizootic diary

-Pharmaceutical book

-Diary for bioproducts

-Diary for held mass prophylactic and diagnostic events against

infectious and parasitic diseases.

-Folders for incoming and outgoing correspondence.


All licensed veterinarians work on an immunoprophylactic plan divided by months and quarters, prepared by NVS. Mandatory events in art. 30 and art. 31 of LVMD, financed by the state are: Immunizations against anthrax and classical swine fever, field tests for bovine tuberculosis and foulbrood bee diseases, laboratory diagnostic tests for brucellosis in cattle, sheep and pigs, leucosis and leptospirosis in cattle, ovine infectious epididymitis, glanders on horses, bronchitis, cholera, typhus and tuberculosis in birds, rabies, brucellosis and echinococcosis of dogs. Mandatory immunizations which are paid by the owner of the animal are: leptospirosis in cattle, pigs and dogs, erysipelas in pigs, bovine black leg, ovine enterotoxemia, rhinopneumonitis and influenza in horses. Along with regular preventive program licensed veterinarians are responsible for marking of cattle. Ear tags for RVS - Sofia have numbers beginning with 022. During mark of every animal passport is issued. If some owner refuses to carry out vaccination or diagnostic examination of his animals, which are required for the country, prescription is issued. In non-compliance with the prescription, the farmer has prepared Statement for stated breach on the basis of which Criminal decree is issued by the Director of NVS. Amounts less than 150 leva are not subject to appeal.

On the basis of all monthly and quarterly reports is prepared the annual veterinary report which is the basis for drawing up the annual plan for the next financial year.





























Internal non transmissive diseases are widespread. They occupy first place among all diseases in animals. The development of industry in the region, and the increased use of chemicals in agriculture and lifestyle are a prerequisite for rise of acute and chronic intoxications. The main factors predisposing emergence of internal non transmissive diseases are the conditions of the environment, nutrition unconsidered with physiological needs of the body in different periods of its developments, bad or not respected zoo hygienic conditions, and improper exploitation of the animals. Intensive feeding to increase production often leads to diseases of high productivity. Disturbance balance in terms of protein and carbohydrates often leads to the emergence of indigestions, atony and acidosis of fore stomachs, ketosis in ruminants, total aseptic pododermatitis on horses, and diabetes in dogs. Climate changes during the autumn-winter season are frequent cause for the occurrence of respiratory diseases. Deficiency diseases also are not rare. All these diseases cause massive loss of livestock, which is expressed in reduce of the production of meat, milk, wool, sub products and other, often leading to non profitability of the production. This requires a particularly serious attitude towards internal non transmissive diseases and toxicology in order not only successful treatment, but subsequent prophylactic of the most common diseases of the region. Treatment is facilitated by the presence of multiple and different types of medicines, not only veterinary but also human medicines. But common practice is farmers trying to heal the animals themselves, and to seek help of a veterinarian until the end of the evolution of disease when the prognosis is pessimistic. During the course of the practice I observed mainly chronic diseases. The most typical cases, which I observed were as follows:


Journal 1


For the disease condition of a dog owned by Svetozar Tzakov from Sofia.


Upon receipt of the animal I took the following anamnesis:

The animal for some time move difficult and easily tires. Shows curvature of the rear limbs. It's feed mainly with swill, rarely meat. Not given are any vitamin and mineral supplements to the food. No treatment to present.


Current condition: (Status praesens): It is about dog, female sex, aged five months, wiener breed. Fur color is dark brown.

Habitus: Constitution - average, feed - bad, temperament - sanguine, general bearing - involuntary. Fur is without shine. Skin temperature is properly allocated. Skin elasticity - saved. Internal body temperature - 38,8C. Conjunctives - normal color, without swell, fur and extrudes.


Cardiovascular system: Pulse - 95 beats per minute.

Respiratory, digestive, excretory and nervous system- without specifics.

Locomotive apparatus : During inspection curvature of the rear limbs was found and slight thicken of bones. During palpation of cavity chest was established thicken between the bone and the cartilaginous part of the ribs.

In animal's movement not improvement was detected of the status of the locomotive apparatus, which excludes the presence of joints rheumatism. X-Ray image of the pipe bones was not made because of the uniqueness of the observed symptoms.


Diagnosis: Rachitis.


Treatment: Subcutaneous injection of trivitaminol 4,0 ml, once a week, quadrupled. Give of medicament Calci-Delice - 1 tablet a day and 3 fish oil capsules (Oleum jecoris aselli). Add to the food powdered egg shells. In the sun-time exhibit the animal more often in direct sunlight. Improve the food ration.

With the last injection with trivitaminol visible improvement in the condition of the animal was detected. The movement was normal, without tiring. Curvature of the limbs was almost completely missing.


Journal 2


For the disease condition of a cow owned by Ivan Petrov, village Podgomer.


Anamnesis: According to the owner the evening before out visit to the shed, cow has swell by the side of the left flank, and the swelling in the morning had significant increase. Cow refuses to eat. At the same shed 4 more cows are kept, but they did not show similar symptoms and eat normally. For fodder oilcake, straw and cornstalk is used. Last day the animals are left to graze free, since the morning.


Current condition: (Status praesens):

Its about cow 6 years, approximate weight about 500 kilograms, Holstein breed with milk purpose. Constitution - average, feed - good, temperament - phlegmatic, general bearing - depressed. Fur - slightly goose bumped, without shine. Skin elasticity - saved. Skin temperature - properly allocated. Conjunctives are with slight cyanosis. Internal body temperature - 38,4C.


Cardio-vascular system: Pulse - 96 beats per minute, fast, weak, rhythmic. During auscultation clear and strong heart tones are heard, with accent on the second heart tone.

Respiratory system: Respiratory movements - 27 per minute, symmetrical, weak with disturbed rhythm. Breathing is of bone type. Inspiration is shorter than normal and accompanied by whine sound. Expirated air has unpleasant decay smell. During auscultation and percussion of the lung is established a strong shift of abdominal limit in cranial direction.

Digestive system: There is no appetite. Eructation - not found. Vomiting - not found. Rumen movements - 3 for 5 minutes, weak non rhythmic. Left flank pit - significant swell. After massage on the left abdominal area little eructation of the gases in the rumen is seen. With palpation in the regions of the rumen a hard swell is palpated, covering the area from the last rib to the flank grow. During auscultation of the abdomen are heard crepitate noises, and with percussion - tympanic sound in the left dorsal part of the abdominal area. In rumen content analysis was established decay unpleasant smell with hydrogen ion concentration (pH) about 9,2. Faeces are light colored and with macerate consistency.

Excretory, sexual and nervous system - without specifics.


Disorder of the animal's digestive system was found - reduced rumen movements and increased pH of rumen content.

The swell in the left flank pit and the lack of eructation, shift of abdominal percussion limit of the lung forward are the main symptoms guidance for set of diagnosis. Cyanotic conjunctives, inspirational dyspnea, weak pulse and rapid development of the disease confirmed the final diagnosis.


Diagnosis: Tympania acuta cum hypotonia et alcalosis ruminis.


Treatment: The owner brought some wooded crates on which the animal feet with the front legs in order to more easily eructate the gases from the rumen. Placement in the mouth of tarry bar to induce eructation. Massage of the left flank. After several eructations, the swell decreased, but after some time increased again. Imposed was medical therapy, combined with evacuation of part of the rumen content.


1% Kalii permanganas 500,0 - by mouth.


After 25 minutes with a stomach tube we evacuated about 1.8 liters of rumen content that was mixed with gas bubbles.


After we used the following prescription, made on place:



Acidi acetici 6 (Vinegar 6) 1000,0 - for

adjustment of rumen pH

Silibovon 30,0

Aqua fontana ad 3000,0

Ursopron sol. 200,0

M.D.S. By mouth for cow.


For general strengthening of the animal we applied:



Glucosae 20% 500,0

Glucocoffeini 100,0

Vit. C 10,0

Vit. B1 2,0

M.D.S. Venous for cow.


Bespeak to the owner to massage the left abdominal area of the animal in 2-3 hours. Following held therapy the cow fully recovered.


Journal 3


For the disease condition of a cat owned by Yanaki Krastev from Sofia.


Anamnesis: The animal is weary for some days, almost no eat, urinates rarely and less. It is feed with ready cat food Whiskas.


Current condition: It is about cat, female gender, 9 years, unspecified breed, with mixed brown and black fur color. Fur is sparse and brittle. Color of the skin is preserved, elasticity is reduced. Skin temperature is properly allocated. Constitution is average, feed - weak, temperament - sanguine. Depressed general condition. Conjunctives are with pale pink color, with slight icteric spice, without swell, fur and extrudes. Slight icteric spice is also seen on the mouth mucosa. Internal body temperature is 38,3C.


Cardio-vascular system: Pulse - 86 beats per minute, rhythmic, strong, full, hard. Auscultation - without specifics.

Respiratory and digestive system - without specifics.

Excretory system - when palpated in the area of the kidneys demonstrates pecans. Upon urine analysis was found: Decreased quantity with dark color, less transparency. Consistency and smell - without specifics. Availability of protein. Sediment contains organic elements and single epithelial kidney cells.

Locomotive apparatus: Moves stiffly, unsure and with reluctance. Gets up hardly, presence of spine curvature - kyphosis.

The reduced amount of urine, dark color and presence of protein and epithelial kindey cells, accompanied by pain in the kidneys directed to:


Diagnosis: Nephritis acuta.




60 grams veal

220 grams of boiled rice

1 egg

2 slices bread

1 tea spoon egg shells.


Give little protein, but with high sterling. Do not give salt and mineral supplements.


Glucosa 5% 50,0 ml intravenously.

Vit. C 1 ampoule intravenously.

Novacoc 0,5 ml intravenously.

Depedin 0,5 ml subcutaneously.

Baytril 5% 0,4 ml subcutaneously.

Bicahepar 1,0 ml subcutaneously.


After held five day course of treatment, the re-examination of the urine showed an increase in the quantity and clear transparency.

Epithelial cells in the sediment were not found. During palpation in the kidney area the cat didn't react with pecans. The status of the animal was visibly improved.


Journal 4


For the disease condition of a dog, owned by Toma Velev from Sofia.


Anamnesis: Since several days the dog coughs, refuses to eat, hides and avoids contact with host.


Current condition: It is about dog, male gender, 11 years old, breed German Shepherd, with grey-brown fur color and black back. Constitution - average, feed - good, temperament - sanguine, general bearing - depressed. Fur is without shine, skin temperature is properly allocated. Skin elasticity - saved. Internal body temperature - 39,0C. Conjunctives - red, without swell, fur and extrudes.


Cardio-vascular system: Pulse - 110 beats per minute, rhythmic, strong, full, hard. Auscultation of heart - without specifics.

Respiratory system: Respiratory movements - 23 per minute, with normal power, symmetrical. Costo-abdominal type of breathing. The dogs shows mixed dyspnea. The expirated air is without specific smell. Nose extrudes - transparent, small by quantity, with mucinous consistency, without smell and foreign impurities. Nasal cavity - without specifics. Larynx and trachea - without specifics. Cough - long, deaf, painful and wet. Thoracic cavity - inspection and palpation - without specifics. During auscultation of lung crepitate wheeze is heard mainly in the left lobe.

Digestive, excretory and genital system - without specifics.

Locomotive apparatus - without specifics.


Diagnosis: Bronchitis acuta.


Treatment: First three days we applied the following prescription:



Vetramycin 3,0 subcutaneously.

Bisolvon 3,0 subcutaneously.

Ultrasol 4,0 subcutaneously.

Injektavit 2,0 subcutaneously.


On the fourth and fifth day:


Vetramycin 3,0 subcutaneously.

Bisolvon 3,0 subcutaneously.

Ultasol 2,0 subcutaneously.


Following held therapy the dog fully recovered. In the last examination there was no cough, and the internal body temperature was 38,6C.


Journal 5


For the disease condition of dog, owned by Delyan Mihaylov from Sofia.


Anamnesis: Last evening the dog was sighted by the owner to be in normal condition, barked, played with the other dogs in the neighborhood. At the morning it slept and didn't react of call and whistle.


Current condition: It is about dog, male gender, 6 years old, indefinite breed, with yellow-brown fur color. Constitution - average, feed - bad, temperament - can not be established, general bearing - coma. Fur is without shine, limbs are colder than the rest of the body. Skin elasticity - reduced. Internal body temperature - 37,4C. Conjunctives - pale, without swell, fur and extrudes.


Cardio-vascular system: Pulse - 47 beats per minute, arrhythmic, weak, empty, soft, threadlike. Auscultation of hear - weakened heart tones.

Respiratory system: Respiratory movements - 9 per minute, weak, non rhythmic. Costo-abdominal type of breathe. Nasal cavity, larynx, trachea and thoracic cavity - without specifics.

Digestive system: Lack of salivation.

Excretory and genital system - without specifics.

Locomotive apparatus: Ataxia.

Nervous system: Visible depression of the central nervous system - coma.

Lack of exteroreceptive sensitivity. Weak reaction of pupil and corneal reflexes.


The acute course of the disease, respiratory depression, ataxia, hypotension, and hypothermia target poisoning - most likely with barbiturates. It was not made examination of gastrointestinal content to narrow the diagnosis.


Treatment: Aether camphoratus 2,0 subcutaneously.

Foment of stomach with active charcoal

(Carbo activatus).

Bleeding - around 50,0 ml blood.

Venous infusion of warmed solution

glucose 5% 400,0 intravenous.

Atropini sulfatis 0,1 subcutaneously.


After manipulations bespoke with the owner to come at evening for another venous infusion, but he did not appear.


Journal 6


For the disease condition of dog, owned by Ivanka Koleva from Sofia.


Anamnesis: Dog was stung by wasp some minutes ago.


Current condition: It is about a dog, male gender, 3 years old, pincher breed, with black-brown fur color. Constitution - average, feed - good, temperament - sanguine, general bearing - initiated. Fur is shiny gloss, skin temperature is properly allocated. Skin elasticity - normal. Internal body temperature - 38,8C. Conjunctives - pale pink, without swell, fur and extrudes.


Cardio-Vascular system: Pulse - 106 beats per minute, rhythmic, strong, full, hard. Auscultation of heart - without specifics.

Respiratory system: Respiratory movements - 29 per minute, with normal power, symmetrical. Costo-abdominal type of breathe. Nasal cavity, larynx, trachea and thoracic cavity - without specifics.

Digestive, excretory and genital system - without specifics.

Locomotive apparatus - without specifics.


Treatment: Rub in of 0,02% solution of potassium permanganate in the sting place. Dexamethason 0,2 ml subcutaneously.




Parasitic invasions run mostly chronic and cause great economic losses to livestock. Especially large are loses by detention growth, rudimentary, and reduced productivity of the invaded animals. This requires a comprehensive struggle to limit the spread of parasites in nature, with the use of the considerable efforts and funds.

In the territory of Sofia various parasitosis encounter. In the urban part are grown mainly small animals - dogs and cats, while in the terminal and surrounding district settlements also livestock is encountered. This defines the relative areas of distribution of some specific parasitic diseases.

The presence of multiple homeless wandering dogs and cats, which occur as natural reservoirs, cause widespread dissemination of ectoparasitic diseases - different types of scabies - demodecosis, otodectosis, sarcoptosis, a warming climate is prerequisite for especially large rate of invasions with ticks and fleas, which is increasing problem for keepers of domestic animals. From endoparasites often are observed nemotodosis - toxocariasis and toxascaridosis, cestodiasis - echinococcosis, protozooses - sarcocystosis, toxoplasmosis, babesiosis, leishmaniosis. Especially great economic and social problem is the increased invasion of sheppard dogs with sexually mature forms of dog tapeworm. When slaughter the livestock, often carried out by owners, finding echinoccocus blisters in the internal organs, most often they discard them, and then viscera are being eaten by dogs and cause the closure of the biological cycle of the parasite. Dogs grown in the city are subject to regular dehelmintization and among them distribution is significant less.

In the livestock is also observed widespread distribution of parasitosis. Often observed is pig ascaridosis and poultry ascaridosis. In the area of the district "Filipovzi" were found new outbreaks of Trichinosis, from which people are affected as well. Problematic are helminthiases in ruminants - trematodiasis - fasciolosis, dicrocoeliasis, paramphistomosis, nematodiasis - hoose, trichostrongylosis, cestodoses - monieziosis, avitellinosis, stilesiosis. Coccidiosis on poultry and rabbits, if not taken preventive measures, cause major damage, mostly to family farms.

To limit all these parasitoses is need regular prophylactic, timely and accurate diagnosis of aroused invasions, competent treatment, regular cleaning and disposal of manure, careful clean and disinfection of the premises for animals, struggle with the intermediate host of parasites, education of the people involved with livestock, in terms of parasitic diseases and how to prevent and fight them.

During the practice, for defleaing of dogs, sheep, pigs, horses and cattle from ectoparasitoses, we used spraying or bathing with 0.06% emulsion of neocidol. The medicine was kept in cans of 5 l and to obtain the necessary concentration we used 1 milliliter of the active substance (Neocidol-60 E, containing Diazinonum 60,0 and excipiens to 100.0), dissolved in 1 liter of water. Because of the toxicity of neocidol for cats and birds in these types we used Ectomin or Bandit or suggested to the owners some of the many commercial preparations, for example Biokill, Control, Petguard, Tapilan, as a preventive measure antiparasitic collars - preventing from ticks and insects. Injective we used Ivermectin, a preparation that has endectocide action (acting against endo and ectoparasites) at a dose 0.02 milliliters per kilogram mass subcutaneously. Because of the higher resistance of the eggs to medicinal preparations, treatment of the invaded animals is needed twice during an interval of 10-12 days.

For prevention and treatment of nematodiasis and cestodoses in dogs and cats we used Azipirin, containing Praziquantel 50 milligrams and Pyrantel pamoate 150 milligrams, with dosage one tablet for 10 kg weight. With the same objectives can be used Prazimec C and D, Niclovet and others, again with dosage one tablet for 10 kg weight. Against nematodoses in small dogs we used Piperatrin with dose of 2 ml / kg mass internally.

Against pig ascoridosis we used Levamisol (Nilverm) 7,5% solution in dosage 1ml for 10 kilogram body weight, subcutaneous, or Bulmectin - 1,5 grams per 10 kg body weight attached internally morning fasting, while 6 hours after that not given food. Because of the widespread of this invasion, it is a frequent practice veterinarians to inject Levamisol, after each castration, which is with good prophylactic effect and also have strong immunostimulating effect, one of the additional effects of the preparation, reducing the risk of postcastrational infections.

Poultry ascaridosis is also regularly observed disease, but most often we diagnosed it postmortem because negligence of some farmers refusing to implement measures to restrict the invasion. For prevention and treatment we used Piperatrin with dose 2 ml / kg mass internally.

To limit trematodoses in ruminants each spring and autumn mass deworming is made. Against the common liver fluke we used Fasciolid with dosage 0,4 ml per 10 kilograms weight, subcutaneously. Against paramphistomosis we applied Bithin-S 0,04-0,05 grams per kilogram mass internally morning fasting, as two to three days before the mass treatment, preparation is tested for tolerance on 20-30 animals.

From nematodoses in ruminants for treatment of trichostrongylosis we used Levamisol 7,5% solution with dosage 1 ml per 10 kilogram weight, internally.

Major problem for private bird growers and rabbit growers are coccidioses where prevention is of particular importance for reducing economic losses from these diseases. To the farmers we prescribed preparation EsB3, which is a powder to dissolve in the drinking water and apply at a dose 1 g per liter. Prevention in birds apply in 3 - daily rates at the beginning of the third, fifth and seventh week after hatching of chicks, and in laying hens - immediately before laying.

The most typical cases, which I observed during the practice, were the following:


Journal 1


For the disease condition of three pigs, owned by Simeon Valkov from village Pancharevo.


Anamnesis: From a few days pigs exhibit perverted appetite - lick walls and eat bedding. Although all provided fodder is eaten they not bid in weight. Owner cultivates also goats in the same yard as well as hens, but they are in a separate room. He observed worms when cleaning the faeces of the pigs. No treatment was applied.


Current condition: It is about 3 pigs, breed Great White, 9 months old, and with weight about 55 kg, intended for fattening. Constitution - average, feed - bad, temperament - sanguine. General bearing - restless, often grunt and dig with muzzle. Fur is contaminated, goose bumped and ruffled, without shine. Skin temperature is properly allocated. Skin elasticity - reduced. Conjunctives are with pale pink color, without swell, fur and extrudes. Internal body temperature - 39,2C, 39,3C, 39,1C.


Cardio-vascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory, genital and nervous system - without specifics.


In coproscopy examination with Fulleborn method are found eggs of the nematode Ascaris suum in the faeces in the three pigs.


Diagnosis: Ascaridosis.


Treatment: On the other morning fasting we applied to the pigs subcutaneous Levamisol, in doses of pig 5,5 ml. In the next day in the faeces of pigs there were multiple sexually mature forms of Ascaris suum. Bespoke with the owner to dispose the faeces with burning or digging. After 14 days we treated the pigs again with Levamisol, in doses 6,0 ml of pig subcutaneous. We suggested to the owner to regularly clean the pigsty.


Journal 2


For the disease condition of a dog owned by Kalin Hristov from Sofia.


Anamnesis: For some time on the fur of the dog are formed different in size naked spots. The dog constantly scours.


Current condition: It is about dog, male gender, 2 years old, breed boxer, with reddish-yellow of fur. Constitution - strong, feed - very good, temperament - choleric, general bearing - normal. Fur is without shine, with heated naked areas around the eyes, mouth and neck, with the presence of brown crusts and excoriations. Skin elasticity - saved. Conjunctives are red without swell, fur and extrudes. Internal body temperature - 38,9C.


Cardio-vascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory, genital and nervous system - without specifics.


In the taken material from the skin of the amended sections was found presence of sarcoposis ticks species Sarcoptes canis.


Diagnosis: Sarcoptosis.


Treatment: Rub in of 0,06% emulsion of Neocidol in the affected skin areas. Ivermectin 0,4 ml, subcutaneously. After 12 days we repeated the same procedure. After the re-manipulation the crusts and the excoriations were disappeared and on the damaged sections a low growth of new fur was seen.


Journal 3


For the disease condition of dog, owned by Nikolay Varbanov from Sofia.


Anamnesis: Despite endeavor health care which the owner had put, the fur of the animal falls off mainly around the eyes, mouth, neck, chest, limbs. The animal constantly scours and wounds and several of the naked areas are bleeding, mixed with pus.


Current condition: It is about dog, female gender, 1 year old; breed pincher, with black fur color, with yellow areas around the chest and limbs. Constitution - average, feed - good, temperament - choleric, general bearing - depressed. Fur has fallen off around the eyes, mouth, neck, chest and limbs. The skin in theses areas is dirty violet, chapped with multiple pus pustules, wounded, with issue of bloody pus exudates. Damaged areas are obviously heated. Conjunctives are dirty red, without swell, fur and extrudes. Internal body temperature is 39, 9C.


Cardio-vascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory, genital and nervous system - without specifics.


In the taken material from the amended skin sections was found presence of demodex ticks by the species Demodex canis, combined with pus inflammation of the hair follicles.


Diagnosis: Demodicosis cum pyodemia.


Treatment: At the start we made clean through of the affected areas - shear, removal of the pustulas of pustules and wash with hydrogen peroxide. First we held treatment against the pus infection for 5 days with:


Vetramycin 0,5 subcutaneously.

Triprim 0,5 subcutaneously.

Unguentum ichthyoli - spreads to the affected areas.

After apparent disappearance of pyodermia we bathed the dog with 0,06% emulsion of Neocidol and injected subcutaneously with Ivermectin 0,1 ml, both procedures twice in 10 days. Explained to the owned that the dogs normally wear demodex tics and frequent bathing facilitates their infiltration into hair follicles and suggested to him to restrict baths. We gave him Neocidol to spray the room of the dog. On the control review 1 month later the dog was apparently well.


Journal 4


For the disease condition cow owned by Gabriela Stefanova from Sofia.


Anamnesis: For few days the cow is with reduced appetite, as the last 3 days is with diarrhoea. Milk production lowered. The fodder was changed, neither the graze range. Cow is not marked. It is not treated before. Only animal in the shed.


Current condition: It is about cow, Holstein breed with milk purpose, 4 years old, with weight about 450 kilograms. Feed - good, constitution - average, general bearing - normal. Fur is goose bumped, without shine. Skin temperature is properly allocated. Skin elasticity - saved. Conjunctives are pink, without swell, fur and extrudes. Internal body temperature 38,8C.


Cardio-vascular and respiratory system - without specifics.

Digestive system - increased thirst, profuse diarrhea with smudge around the anus. Coproscopic examination with sequential deposition method - detect gray-silver eggs of parasites from genus Paramphistomum.

Excretory, genital and nervous system - without specifics.


Diagnosis: Paramphistomosis.


Treatment: On the next morning fasting we applied to the cow Bitin-S dosage 20,0 ml, internally. We set earmark of the cow thus registering and ensured presence in mass dehelmithizations. After about a week the appetite and milking of the animal went normal.


Journal 5


For disease condition of 6 pigs owned by Emil Krastev from village German.


Anamnesis: Owner has noticed special reddish spots behind the ears, in the back and abdomen. Pigs are restless. Metal bulwark in the pigsty have special brilliance.


Current condition: It is about 6 pigs - 4 male and 2 female, breed Great White, 5 months old, with average weight about 60 kilograms. Feed - good, constitution - strong, general bearing - bespoke with the owner to give them food and we hid of sight of the pigs. After relaxing, the animals began to mass scratch in the walls, surrounding objects and metal bulwarks. On the skin of the pigs in the areas around the ears, back and abdomen are seen red stations, some of them covered with brown scabs and crusts. Samples taken from the affected stations on the border with intact skin had shown content of sarcoptosis ticks from the species Sarcoptes suis. Skin temperature is not properly allocated - reddish stations are heated. Skin elasticity - saved. Conjunctives - without specifics.


Cardio-vascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory, genital and nervous system - without specifics.


Diagnosis: Sarcoptosis.


Treatment: Bath with 0,06% emulsion of Neocidol, twice in 14 days.

As far as the first treatment the restless of the pigs disappeared, and on the second bath skin amendments were gone.


Journal 6


For the disease condition of dog, owned by Ilian Manolov from Sofia.


Anamnesis: One day ago the dog vomited. In the vomited content the owner noticed worms. The animal is not dewormed until now.


Current condition: It is about a dog, female gender, 2 years old, breed Smooth Fox Terrier, white fur color, with big dark spots around the head, neck and abdomen. Constitution - average, feed - good, temperament - sanguine, general bearing - normal. Fur is shiny with brilliance. Skin elasticity is reduced. Skin temperature is properly allocated. Conjunctives are slightly reddish, without swell, fur and extrudes. Internal body temperature is 38,6C.


Cardio-vascular and respiratory system - without specifics.

Digestive system - reduced appetite, diarrhea, mild swelling of the stomach. Coproscopic examination by the method of Fulleborn proves the presence of eggs of the parasite Toxascaris leonina.

Excretory, genital and nervous system - without specifics.


Diagnosis: Toxascaridosis.


Treatment: 1 tablet Azipirin, morning fasting. Owner to make regular deworming with the same medicine every 2 to 3 months.


Journal 7


For the disease condition of dog, owned by Ivan Zlatanov from Sofia.


Anamnesis: Dog is depressed since several days, do not eat, moves hardly. It is used as a guard for service-station and lived in crib.


Current condition: It is about dog, female gender, 9 years old, breed Saint Bernard, with yellow-brown with white spots fur color. Constitution - average, feed - bad, temperament - phlegmatic, general bearing - strongly depressed. Fur is heavily polluted and in the area of the rump clotted. When shear the rump of the body reveals many larvae of flies of family Calliphoridae. Skin is these areas are necrotic, smelling uncomfortable. Skin elasticity is reduced. Damaged from the larvaes areas are heated. Conjunctives are diffuse red, slightly swell, without fur and extrudes. Internal body temperature is 39,6C.


Cardio-vascular and respiratory system - without specifics.

Digestive system - anorexia, smudged with faeces around the anus.

Excretory, genital and nervous system - without specifics.


The animal lied for a long time, but no one has its attention, with the results that it got decubital wounds, which are favorable environment for the development of meat flies.


Diagnosis: Calliphoridoses.


Treatment: Shear of affected areas and treatment with 0.1% emulsion of neocidol to kill larvae and eggs of flies. Surgical treatment of wounds to remove necrotic tissues. Cover affected areas with cloth irrigated with Neocidol (Acts repellent). Injection of:

Vetramycin 5,0 ml subcutaneously.

Ultrasol 5,0 ml subcutaneously.

Injektavit 3,0 ml subcutaneously.

Glucosa 500,0 ml venous infusion.

Vitamin C 2,0 ml intravenously (into the system for venous infusion).

Owner had to come after 1 day, but he only arrived on the 4th day, but nevertheless the animal's condition was slightly improved. We continued with the chemotherapy and the sepsis was overcome. On the 9th day the animal was apparently well, with regained appetite and wounds were in the initial phase of epithelization.



Journal 8


For the disease condition of cat, owned by Ognyan Delev from Sofia.


Anamnesis: From a few days the cat is restless and scratches in ears, wounding them.


Current condition: It is about cat, female gender, 7 years old, Siamese breed. Constitution - average, feed - good, temperament - choleric, general bearing - initiated. Fur is shiny with brilliance, fallen off around the ears. In examination of ear canal is found large amount of semi fluid eye excrete. Microscopic in the ear excrete are seen psoroptoses ticks of the species Otodectes cynotis. Skin elasticity is preserved. Skin around the ears is heated. Conjunctives are reddish, without swell, fur and excludes. Internal body temperature is 39,7C.



Cardio-vascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory, genital and nervous system - without specifics.


Pertains to the advanced form of ear scab.


Diagnosis: Otodectosis.


Treatment: Wash of ear canal with irrigated with Rivanol cotton. Spread of ear canal with unguent containing 30% sulfur.























The main task of veterinary-sanitary expertise is protection of human health, as it considers as raw materials and finished food products of animal origin in terms of their quality and safety to the consumer. This means exclude the possibilities of contamination by them with disease agents. To fulfill this task, the agents of DVSK make permanent and preventive control on enterprises for yield, transportation resources for animals and products of animal origin, places and methods of storage and disposal of products. Agents of DVSK may impose a ban on disposal of unfit food products, to obscure stores in commercial network, to cease the yield of animal products, when technology and sanitary conditions are not respected.

The rights and obligations of the DVSK agents are regulated in the sixth chapter of the Law of Veterinary activity, Rules of Procedure of DVSK activity, Standardization law and drawn up based on these regulations - rules of procedure, instructions, orders, commands and directions.



Structure of DVSK is as follows:


Financial-legal and economy department.


1.Legal sector.


2.Financial-accounting sector..


3.Information and business.


Diagnostic-test laboratory - managed by laboratory management doctor and head of quality control.


1.Control of raw milk sector.


2.Microbiology sector.


3.Physical-chemical sector.


4.Trichineloscopy and ascolization sector.


5.Bee products sector.


Manufacturing enterprises and meat factory antraposite refrigerator department.


1.Meatyield sector.


2.Antraposite refrigerator sector.


3.Meat processing enterprises sector.


4.Milk processing enterprises sector.


Fairs and auctions department.


Markets and commercial network department.


1.Commercial network sector.


2.Markets sector.


3.Certificates - imports and exports sector.


Border inspection and veterinary control and quarantine department - Sofia airport


In such structure DVSK forms a perfectly functioning mechanism allowing for uncompromising performance of its duties. Thanks to the work of DVSK agents to the markets are allowed only quality and safe products for consumers and the non standard are scraped and destroyed.

In its daily control activity the inspectors of DVSK use the following documents:


Veterinary certificate for animals and animal products. This document contains information on the following points:

1.Data for the owner of sender of animals or products.

2.Data for the attendant or the mediator.

3.Loading place.

4.Data for the animals or animal products.

5.Origin and mode of transport.

6.Clinic condition of the animals, quality and suitability of products.

7.Data for days of observation of animals, conducted diagnostic, therapeutic and prophylactic treatments.

8.Destination and purpose of movement of the animals.

9.Place of landing.

10.Data of recipient.


The purpose of veterinary certificate is to certify that the animals or products are previously reviewed by state veterinarian, have been healthy and fit for moving to the destination, come from a region free from contagious diseases for such species animals, from which the food products originate. Certifies that the vehicle is cleaned and disinfected. Under all this information are signed the author and receipt state veterinarians.


Expert sheet. This document characterizes

quality and suitability of foodstuffs and raw materials of animal origin. Contains information about the manufacturer, type of animals or products, packaging, their type and number, quantity and quality. Mention is the number and date of issue of statement by DVSK laboratory and the products are allowed to be sold, processed and exported abroad.


Certificate. This is a document which accompanies the import, export and transit of animal products. During import, certificate certify that the products are manufactured in approved by the state enterprises, under continuous monitoring of DVSK and are fit for human consumption. The document also must certify that these products are not carriers of infectious agents for humans and animals, toxins, radiation, antibiotics and other substances harmful to the consumer. Export certificate is issued on the basis of examination of hygienic condition of the vehicle. Issued only by state veterinarian and is valid until 10 days from the date of issue.


Sampling statement. With this document the DVSK inspectors report sampling of animal products in the controlled by them sites. It describes thy type of product or raw material, the quantity of the sample, data to describe the lot and what to examine. Set is laboratory in which the sample will be examined. The statement also contains a flag that the samples have informational nature and therefore not forfeit the lot.


Prescription. In the prescription DVSK agent describes found deficiencies and shortcomings and on the basis Law of Veterinary Activities (ZVMD) prescribes measures to be taken to rectify them, specifying the time and deadline for their implementation.


Statement of violation found. Issued by DVSK agents in found violations. In this document is mentioned data for the offender, violation and issuer of the statement.


Interdiction statement. With this document is set restriction on given food of animal origin. In the statement is described the quantity and type of raw material or product and the reasons that require the interdiction.


Order to stop operation of facility. In finding major irregularities with this document inspectors from DVSK impose closure of a site. Violations are described in statement of findings and the facility is closes under Article. 59; paragraph 1; item 4 of ZVMD.


Order to resolve operation of facility. With this document is ceased the action of Order to stop operation of facility. Issued after made inspection of the facility.


Statement for scrapping. With this document basis on ZVMD food of animal origin are declared unfit for consumption and are scrapped. Specified is their quantity and the reasons for the taken decision. Mentioned is the facility in which the products are to be sent for technical facilitation.



During the practice I visited the regulated slaughterhouse located in Filipovzi neighborhood. Slaughterhouse is small in size and consists of several sections:


1.Gate with disinfection square.


2."Sales" department.




4.Administration building with laboratory.


5.Ramp for adoption of pigs and ruminants with weight meter.


Upon receipt the animals by corridor system from the receipt ramps go to the barred areas with sheds for preslaughter preparation, where they are thermo metered. After them are located the boxes for stunning, and closely are the premises for cooling of carcass halfs, respectively quarters and refrigerators. Slaughterhouse also has isolation room and carcass holding pit, which are remote from the enterprise. For regularly slaughter enter animals with necessary documents with obligatory requirement to be healthy. In the absence of documents animals are not accepted. The cases in which the animals are not accepted for slaughter are:


1. Suffering of suspected of suffering from anthrax, brad sot, black leg, malignant edema, rabies, enterotoxemia, botulism, tularemia, epizootic lymphangitis.


2. Animals which are vaccinated against anthrax, rabies, black leg until 14 days after vaccination and also serum producer animals.


3. Animals until 14 days after bird, because their meat is with high water content, have jelly consistency and low nutritional value.


4. Animals treated with medications before expiration of withdrawal period for the given medicinal preparation.


5. Animals in agony.


Slaughter runs on different technologies for different categories of animals.

In large ruminants after thermometry the animals are poured with lukewarm water, after that stunned with low voltage electricity with voltage 80V and power 1A, and then bled by cut of the two jugular veins. Carcasses are raised by electro-telpher, so head touches the ground. Follows flay of the skin in the white line and medial parts of the limbs. Skin is removed with the help of the electro-telpher under slight slope so the carcass is not polluted. Then with razor chop the head is severed. It is hanged on hook and accompanies each carcass. Follows removal of internal organs - thoracic, abdominal and viscera, and are put so to know from which animal are they. Finally the carcass is divided by the spine in two halves, then each half is cut to further two.

In small ruminants stunning is not applied. Animals are raised with the head down, tied to one of pelvic limbs, slaughtered, bled and flayed, so after flaying the skin to remain with the wool inside. Head is separated from the carcass, removed are the thoracic and abdominal organs and the carcass is subject to dry and wet wash. In small ruminants is not necessary to know which head to which corpse belongs.

Pigs after stunning by weak electric current with voltage 75-80V and power 1A, animals are hanged with one pelvic limb with head down and slaughtered by knife for puncture of jugular area. In the slaughterhouse the pigs are flayed. Made is scratch of skin in the area of the medial part of the limbs and in the white line, then the carcasses are flayed towards bottom-up. Follows removal of all internal organs, head sever and cut of the carcass in the spine.

According to regulation documents every carcass must be examined by DVSK agent immediately after slaughter. Examine veterinarian is state officer, thus preventing abuses that would make if he works in private company and is financially and administratively dependent on the owners of the slaughterhouse, owners of the animals or third parties which would have benefit from the disposal of not quality animal products. Slaughter meat examination is made in rich light and consisted of the following parts:


1.Blood examination - monitored is its color, consistency and coagulation.


2.Head examination - external view, in ruminants obligatory are made sections of chewing muscles (musculus masseter and musculi pterigoidales) and is reviewed for presence of cysticeral cysts. Reviewed are the reachable lymph nodes in the head area -lymphonodus retropharingicus medialis, lymphonodus retropharingicus lateralis, lymphonodus mandibularis and lymphonodus parotidicus.


3.Viscera examination - reviewed are separately organs.


-Lung is reviewed for changes, reviewed are also pulmonary lymph nodes.


-Liver is cut by the protuberant part, across the biliary channels and seek for flukes.


-Heart is cut in the myocardium and monitored for presence of cysticercs.


-Spleen is monitored whether is increased with rounded or sharp edges.


-On the gullet and trachea was not given attention.


4.Internal abdomen organs and genitals examination - paid is attention to the mesenteric lymph nodes.


5.Exterior view of the carcass, for presence of conglomerations and cicatrix in the area of body cavities, which is sign of different inflammatory processes.


6.Carcass lymph nodes examination - carefully done only in slighter of necessity.


7.In pigs obligatory is made trichinosis examination with material taken from crura diaphragmica.


As in most new slaughterhouses, and that have no insulation slaughterhouse for suspected of suffering and suffering animals. Their slaughter is made after the end of the regular slaughter, and then thorough disinfection is done. Suffering animals are sent for slaughter of necessity that even after the recovery will not fully recover to be productive and economically beneficial, for example with traumatic pericarditis. In insulation are also slaughtered animals from herds in which is proven disease against which the treatment is radical, even if they appear to be healthy - classical swine fever, tuberculosis, brucellosis, bluetongue. The animals are not subject to preslaughter regime and they are proceeding directly to slaughter. In such slaughtered animals always is taken material for bacteriological examination. Upon detection of disease bearing imminent danger to the consumer, hygiene assessment is strictly regulated. In slaughter of necessity all the lymph nodes must be examined, and the meat is disposed in different ways, mandatory after heat treatment.

The territory under control of Sofia Inspection of DVSK has no functioning bird slaughterhouse and therefore we have not visited such facility during the practice.

During the practice we visited the meat processing enterprise of company "Solaris", located in Druzhba neighborhood. The enterprise is built according to all the requirements of the agents of DVSK and health authorities. The buildings are separated from the vicinity by two meter fence of masonry and have 2 entrances - one for cars and a second for people which are strictly guarded. Building itself consists of several parts: Ramp - from where input raw materials are received for processing, entrance - divided in two parts - for workers and for the administration, departure - exit for the ready products. In adopting the meat is measured by electronic weight meter and from the ramp by tube way it goes to the refrigerator premises. During this time, responsible for the site DVSK agent monitors the presence of seals located in the thigh and shoulder. The main part of the enterprise is built on three levels:


1.Level "Underground" - it has two small dryers and air-conditioning system.


2.Level "Work facilities" - here are located refrigerators, which maintain a temperature of 0 to 1 degrees, the so-called zero refrigerators, separate for pork and beef. On this level there is also room for storing spices and freezers for storage of chilled meat - also with separate facilities for pork and beef.


3.Level "Administration, dress room and dining room".


In the enterprise are produced the following articles: meat cuts and perishable and semi-perishable meat products. Depending on for what article is intended the meat passes different way. In production of meat cuts for sale, adopted half-carcasses, respectively quarters are cut, the meat is placed in metal barrows and goes for vacuum packing. In production of nonstructural perishable sausages "weenies", cut with certain size pieces of chilled meat is grounded in Wolf machine - type Laska. The grounded meat is cut in cutting machine for 6 to 8 minutes. Follows supplement of fine ice, about 20-30%, to obtain pot with which is filled the pot filling machine. The fill of the shells is under pressure as on the tab of the pot filling machine are put cardboard tubes - the so-called shpuri. The duration of the procedures and input raw materials vary depending on the technology of produced sausages. After shells are filled, follows tie and drain, order in special chassis and place in chamber where they are boiled or glowed. Regulation of temperature inside the chamber is done with special thermometer-needle, which is stick in random sausage and measures the temperature in depth, while after the completion of the process the machine files a signal. Cooling to room temperature takes place through shower system. When producing boiled smoked meat products from uncut meat, preparations are tumbled by tumbler. Packaging is done by machine "Multivak" - packages under vacuum (helps preserve the products). From the packaging shed finished products pass in the hall of departure - there they are weighted, placed in crates and recorded. The documentation is stored in three separate folders and is as follows:


1.Documents with which the raw material arrives - veterinary certificates and Expert sheets.


2.Journals for made laboratory analysis of finished goods in BDS and TC.


3.Documents issued by the enterprise serving in the realization of the products in the commercial network and facilities for catering - Expert sheet of origin, quality and durability.


Documentation is started by the duties state veterinary - DVSK agent.


We also visited diary enterprise "Danon", built on the territory of former Sofia milk enterprise "Serdika". Entrance in the enterprise is very strict. At the entrance data from our identity cards was recorded and we were issued with personal omissions and identification cards. For processing arrives milk from all parts of the country, subject to stringent measures to prevent importation of pathogens. Trucks on arrival pass through deep bathtubs with disinfectant solution, and the tanks themselves are also bathed with disinfectant solution. After this procedure samples from raw milk are taken from each tank and is verified the accompanying documentation. Milk is pumped out of the tanks and enters silos, where it is cooled. If the milk is going to be used after several days, it passes pasteurization at a temperature of 72-74C. Real pasteurization takes place at 65C, as then the milk through pumps goes back in silos and is kept at 4C. All processes are controlled by computer. Where appropriate, cooled and pasteurized milk can be creamed out with separator.

In production of different type of yoghurt, in silo for preparation is added sugar and milk powder (to increase the percentage of proteins) of the company "Laktis". Yeast is added in special containers. Preparations for various articles are received in preparation silos, where they enter with certain indicators and are pasteurized at 92C for 7 minutes. After cooling to 45-47C, in bathtubs by pipe ways where the yeast is entered as well the mixture goes to the "HAMBA" packaging machine for yoghurt. Here also is done the addition of fruit for milks with additives or the flouring. Flavors are imports from Poland and the Czech Republic.

Ordered in crates and pallets, sealed buckets with product stays up to 5 hours in termocameras at a temperature 45C, as continuously the pH of the product is monitored. When it reaches 4.5 pallets move to the refrigerator by belt way, where they are kept at a temperature of 2-4C.

After completion of work by setting a computer program the entire conveyor line is washed with hot water, acid and soda from washing facility. Used are also bactericide lamps for sterilization of air.

In the laboratory is made 24 hour control of milk, either raw or finished product. It has physical-chemical and microbiological department.

In the physical-chemical department of the laboratory with the help of apparatus "MilkoScan - FT - 120" are reported proteins, dry substance, dry fatless balance, citric acid and fat of milk. Milk fat is also determined by the Gerber method as required by DVSK. Acidification is monitored by pH-meter. By fast and slow Delvo - X-Press Test is determined the presence of inhibitors.

In the microbiology department are monitored microbiological indicators of raw and dry milk, yeast and finished products, while for each has a separate box.

The issue of expert sheet and placing the product for consumption is after comparison of parallel examinations from the laboratory of DVSK and Bulgarian-Japanese milk laboratory, located in the building of Sofia Inspection of DVSK, which we also visited and performed a series of examinations of milk. The results obtained from examinations conducted in the Bulgarian-Japanese milk laboratory given in Annex 2.

The same day we also visited the enterprise Darko-Serdica, in which is manufactured ice cream. In the enterprise, even after its receipt the milk is subject to physical-chemical analysis in the laboratory, where all the ingredients for the manufacture are examined. Main indicators which are controlled are: fat, dry substance and acidity. Every conducted analysis is recorded in laboratory diary.

Milk enters from the tanks in bathtubs for raw milk, and then goes in pasteurizer for pasteurization. Follows homogenization and cooling. In the next stage are added scents and colors and depending of the type of assortment and mix goes in bathtubs for maturation with at least 12 hour stay in them. Then the mixture is frozen in various types of freezers, depending on whether it pertains to ice cream stick or in ice cream box. If its ice cream stick used is ammonia freezer, from which it enters shaping machine. Here is implemented the placement of the stick also plunge in chocolate glaze. At the end of the process is machine packing. Ice cream in box is freeze in Freon freezer.

In the enterprise the documents used in the daily activities of DVSK agents are the following:


1.Veterinarian certificates for every material.


2.Expert sheets.


3.Veterinarian-health approval for production.


4.Journals with results by examination of finished product.


5.Health conclusion about the suitability of additives from the Sofia Hygiene & Epidemiology Inspectorate (HEI).


Practice in Markets and commercial network department was held for one working week in sites located in the municipality of "Iskar". The sites on which control is realized by DVSK agents are shops, fairs, auctions and mass caterers. The main duties which the agents must fulfill are control of the implementation, expiry date, method of storage of food products of animal origin, as well as issuing documents authorizing the establishment and operation of facilities that showcase such products. The documents are as follows:


Approval for use. In this document is described the type of products, which are permitted to offer in the facility.


Each functional site must have Journal, in which are noted checks of the DVSK agents, if any irregularities are found prescription are issued.


Production in sites must be accompanied depending of type with different documents certifying its origin and quality, for example Expert sheet, Veterinarian certificate and other.


Where there is doubt about the quality and suitability of products or are found inconsistencies are taken necessary actions, and they are: Issue of prescription, sampling with sampling statement, restriction of productions with Interdiction statement, finding a violation with issuance of the relevant statement.


During our tours with the DVSK agent we found various violations:


1. Sale of products with passed expiration date - in such cases if there is doubt samples are taken and after results from the laboratory are issued take the necessary actions, or scrap the product if it is apparently unfit.


2.Offer of products not accompanied by the necessary documentation - on them is put interdiction statement.


3.Incorrect storage of production - it is described in the journal and prescription is written. .


4.Missing or deleted expiry date on the packages of the commercial articles..


In addition to these violations occur also other types of violations, mainly trade with nonstandartized food, poor hygiene of refrigerators, storage of various food products from different categories of animals in one place and other.


For several hours we also visited the Central Laboratory of Veterinary Expertise and Ecology (CLVSEE). The laboratory carries out preventive control of finished products and the technology of their production. In the European Union is founded "Directorate General for Agriculture". It carries out its control function through the application of the following systems:

- Codex Alimentarius, valid in UN as well.


- The "H.A.S.I.P." system - Concept for dangerous factor in critical point of control. Committees on quality control are composed of veterinarians and technologists. Samples, accompanied by the Sampling statement are adopted in the reception department and described in the diary. Analysis of samples run in three stages:


1.Exctracion of agent or analit.






In most cases, the examination is done with particular company methodology, and in case of non-compliance are imposed heavy penalties, even withdraw the accreditation of the laboratory. In the laboratory examination is made of raw materials and products of plant and animal origin, imported or for export veterinarian medicinal preparations, samples of the environment and others. Here they are examined for: heavy metals, toxins, radionucleotides, contaminants, pesticides and other. If in the examined samples are found substances above the admissible standard limits according to "Hygiene ordinance N:5" and "Food law" is prohibit their use and seized or impose other sanctions under the law. At NVS is created "National monitoring programme for control of residues".

Veterinary Border Control and Quarantine Inspectorate of Sofia airport have the task as a state authority to carry out continuous control of import and export of live animals, products of animal origin, fodders, fodder supplements and others. Imports are permitted only with the authorization of NVS and veterinary certificate issued by the exporting country. Certificates are unified under EU standards and are in German and English. Without these documents imported objects can not leave the territory of Sofia airport. During import or export fees are paid, regulated by Decree of Ministry of Agriculture Forests and Agriculture Reform (MZGAR). The airport have specialized warehouse needed for imports of food products of animal origin. When necessary confiscation or destruction of products, it is done after issue of statement, and the very destruction is made in fire garbage kiln. During import of animals from abroad, they stay in quarantine premises for 30 days. During the period the quarantined animals are under constant monitoring by a veterinarian, taken is blood for serological examinations, and if necessary other manipulations. Export is done only with presence of permission from NVS and certificate form N:7 for products and materials of animal origin and N:5 for live animals. Certificates are issued by the district RVS. In transit is also required relevant documentation. Prior to transport animals are placed in a special mode of feeding and drinking in special rooms. Increased is the quantity of water ration to increase the resistance. On the death of an animal is issued autopsy statement, and it is gathered to rendering plant. Under veterinarian control are also the aircraft and the on-board buffet where food is prepared for passengers. Disinfection of aircrafts is done with Virvax 2% solution with action duration 6 hours, or in completely closed aircraft - 30 minutes (preparation evaporates very quickly). Controlled are also other sites like sweet shop, refrigerators, kitchens. Waste from flights are pressed, decontaminated with chlorinated lime and transported to the landfill.

In the penultimate day we visited the antraposite refrigerator which functions as a commodity auction. Stock exchanges are organized markets, at certain place in which conditions are created for the conclusion of stock exchange transactions, while stock auctions are places which provide merchant stores and refrigerators to other traders and provide access for commercial customers and control authorities.

Auctions and exchanges as places on which are offered products of animal origin are also under the control of DVSK and their activity is regulated by the Law on the exchanges.

The main requirements are:


1.One way of traffic.


2.Disinfection of vehicles.


3.Smooth flooring which is easily disinfected.


4.Presence of sanitary facilities for public use with hot and cold water.


To offer on the exchange goods of animal origin imported from abroad they need to be accompanied by a Permission for import by NVS, application declaration, Examination statement, including from the laboratory for heavy metals and radioactivity and Expert sheet.

During our visit in the antraposite refrigerator were storied food products mostly imports from various countries, mainly sub products as well as raw materials for production of sausages. Storied are also products from non animal origin - fruits, margarine, drinks, but they are under the control of HEI. Basic requirement is that they are not kept together with the foods of animal origin so they not give their specific smell. Temperature in the enormous refrigerator halls is monitored by electronic thermometers outside and it is not necessary to enter inside and to open the doors to check. We spotted trucks of meat processing enterprises from all over the country, came to buy the necessary materials for production. The refrigerator is as interim depot of imported products before they are taken from resellers and transported to different parts of the country. Inside was ran tremendous commercial and advertising activity - there were showcases for samples, prices of products, labels with their contents, expiry date and date of manufacture. Obligatory is the good products to be accompanied by documents - Expert sheet.

At the end of each working day, agents from DVSK report in the central office, as describing in diary the number of checked sites and quantities and range of products inspected. On the basis of these reports are prepared quarterly reports on the activities of the agents.

Last day of practice in veterinary-sanitary expertise of foodstuff of animal origin was held in the laboratory located in the building of Sofia Inspection of DVSK.

The laboratory has two divisions - one for milk and the second for foodstuffs of animal origin. The laboratory for milk was established in 1997, jointly with the Japanese country and is equipped with the most modern equipment produced in France, Belgium and Japan. The laboratory for foodstuffs is divided into three divisions: microbiology, physical-chemical and laboratory for examination of honey and apiculture products. It is equipment is not such a level, but allows activities of the laboratory to be absolutely accurate.

Bulgarian-Japanese laboratory for milk is referent for Bulgaria and in it is carried out examination of milk from all regions of the country, but mostly it works with "Danon-Serdika". In it is exanimate also lactic acidic yeast from all over the country. In receipt of samples for examination are accompanied by Application by form and entered with number into diary. Anonymity of the applicant of the samples is guaranteed and obligatory. The laboratory has two departments - physical-chemical and microbiology, also have conference hall and warehouse for storage of reagents with rack for toxic substances - as required. All examinations are consistent with the standards and requirements of the EU - work is by the system I.D.F.\ I.S.O.

In the physical-chemical unit is examined samples with apparatus MilkoScan - 4000, which shows the following indicators: dry fatless balance, somatic cells, bacteria, protein, fat, lactose (Annex 2). Milk is examined for antibiotics with Beta Screen E.U. test, which is used even in a wide range of pasteurized milk products and is with high sensitivity. For example for Ampicillin it is 10 ppb or 4 MRL, and for Penicillin - G is 1 ppb or 0,4 MRL (ppb used in case of toxic dose - ng/ml, and MRL - maximum residue limit is maximal limit for toxic levels). Other tests used in the laboratory are: Fluorophos test System and Delvo test. The laboratory has also cryoscopy for determining the point of freeze and Keldal apparatus to determine the proteins, ultrasonic homogenizator and other appliances. Contaminated test tubes and sample bottles are washed in special ultrasonic device.

Microbiological sector. For microbiological examination milk samples are taken by the standard procedure, accompanied by Sampling statement. The examination is almost completely automated. Samples are thermometered in automated thermostats with defined programme for the duration of action in temperature regime for thermophils - 45C and for psychrophiles - 5C. Counting of colonies is done by automated counter. The microbiological laboratory also have dryer for swabs, sterile box for making crops and bactericide lamps.

Laboratory for examination of foodstuffs of animal origin is separated from the laboratory for milk only by a small corridor. It has three departments.


First department - Physical-chemical. In it are examined the following indicators: acidity, in Thorner degrees, water content, dry matter, content of NaCl, nitrates and nitrites (for meat products), fat. Made are also biochemical tests - determining pH and content of hydrogen sulfide - for fish and fishery products.


Second department - Microbiology. Here are made the following examinations:


- proof of salmonella - in humans toxic infections - samples from commercial network.


- Development of microscopic preparations and coloring them by Gram.


- crops for proof of micro-organism species. Worked is with following food mediums: Endo agar, Levine's agar for Salmonella and Coli, Brilliant Green-Phenol Red Agar for Salmonella, beer agar for moulds and yeast and some specific mediums.


Third department - Laboratory for expertise of honey and apiculture products. In the laboratory is made:


- physical-chemical analysis.


- determining the sustainability of honey


- Examination for counterfeiting - presence of glucose, cretaceous, sweeteners, gelatin and others.


The work of all departments of DVSK is extremely heavy and responsible, since the least inadvertence may prove fatal to the health of thousands of people, with subsequent criminal liability.





















On the territory of Sofia are observed quite a variety of infectious diseases. In the city are observed more often dog diseases - parvovirosis, brucellosis, canine distemper, and in areas where livestock is grown most frequent is observed pig erysipelas, pig oedema disease, sheep enterotoxemia. Apiculture families are often affected by American foulbrood.

To fight against infectious diseases effectively, it is necessary to plan and carry out activities aimed at the three driving forces of epizootic process - source of infection, routes of distribution and susceptible animals. This includes various diagnostic, therapeutic, prophylactic, zoo hygienic and animal police measures.

Prevention in the region takes place with annual plans for prophylactic vaccination and diagnostic tests of animals. NVS develops and gives annual plans for each area veterinarian, divided by quarters and months, and its execution is watched.

Currently in the country by law are held mass vaccinations, as some of them are financed from the state budget, and another is paid by owners of the animals.

Under the current law immunoprophylactic events and diagnostic tests funded by the state are:




1.Anthrax - cattle, horses and sheep.


2.Classical swine fever.


Field tests:


1.Tuberculosis in cattle.


2.Foulbrood diseases in bees.


Laboratory tests:


1.Brucellosis in cattle, sheep and pigs.


2.Leukosis in cattle.


3.Leptospirosis in cattle.


4.Contagious epididymitis in rams.


5.Glanders in horses.


6.Newcastle disease, cholera, typhus and tuberculosis

in poultry.


7.Rabies, echinococcosis and brucellosis in



Obligatory events which are paid by the owner of the animal are:




1.Leptospirosis in cattle, pigs and



2.Erysipelas in pigs.


3.Black leg in cattle.


4.Enterotoxemia in sheep.


5.Rhinopneumonitis and influenza in horses.


During the practice I participated in two mass events - tuberculinization of cattle and vaccination of pigs against classical swine fever held in the autumn in the Sofia Gorublyane neighborhood.

In the turbeculinization of cows we used the purified protein derivate (PPD). After shear and measure of skin fold and antisepsis with alcohol in the front third of the neck, carefully is applicated intradermally 0.1 ml PPD, in which feels great resistance. After application is watched whether skin tumor is formed, which is indication that the derivate have entered correctly. After 72 hours we read the results - no animals reacted positively. Tuberculinization was done on all cows aged over 3 months, with the exception of pregnant in the last months of pregnancy. When making tuberculinization is written report which contains information on municipal, district, date, whose order, type, number and series of tuberculin, maker of tuberculinization with name and signature. The report have 15 columns, which are allocated as follows: Name of the owner; kind of animal; age; breed; distinguishing marks (ear tag number); how many times in the year is the animal examined; width of skin fold before examination; width of skin fold after examination; difference in width; result (positive (+), negative (-), suspicious) at 4th, 6th, 8th and 10th hour; general assessment; pathomorphological changes;

If during tuberculinization there is suspicious result, differential tuberculinization is made with cattle and poultry tuberculin on both sides of the neck.

For vaccination of classical swine fever in pigs we used vaccinePestigen - C, which contains live apathogenic virus of classical swine fever - Strain K. After dissolution of the vaccine in physiological solution, ex tempore, it should be used within 3 hours. The vaccine we applied muscular behind the neck in a dose 2 ml. Pigs are vaccinated at 60-90th and 120th day. If the pig is left for breeding it is vaccinated again after 2 years. In the vaccination of pigs used the same needle for all pigs, which in my view was incorrect.

I also was present in vaccination against Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease, which is not mandatory and is done at the request of farmers, while they most often they buy the vaccine alone. The fact that the disease is highly contagious and with high mortality forces farmers themselves to seek the veterinarian for immunization, once they were affected.

Epizootic situation in Sofia is as follows:

Leucosis in cattle - tend to increase the sick animals. From 5918 examined animals, 383, located in 24 villages have a positive diagnosis for this disease. The fight is difficult, because there is no quittance for killing sick animals.

Classical swine fever - not seen since 5 years. Last was found in the village of Chepintsi in 1997. Eliminated by Stamping out - have been destroyed 12 pigs and carried out mass vaccination in the region. The reason for the occurrence of the disease was not meeting the obligations of the veterinarian who did not make any vaccination in the past 2 years. Now against CSF are made mandatory vaccinations, which are free, but this does not mean that the disease is not widespread in abortive form.

Black leg in cattle - the disease is stationary for the area of district Kremitovtsi, where it is observed every year. For fight with the disease is carried out mass vaccinations prior to taking out the animals to graze. This event is often difficult because farmers pay the vaccine. Another problem is that during appearance of sick animals, they are killed and the farmers are not getting quittance. Reason for the spread is also considered the fact that often the carcasses of dead animals are not buried, and there is no rendering plant in the region where they are transported for disposal.

Brucellosis in dogs - there is small drop in positive reacted animals. Annually are destroyed around 1200 dogs.

Contagious epididymitis in rams. This year was seen in Vrana and Bankya.

American foulbrood in bees - announced in 1995 and the epizootologists still not cope the disease, but tends to decrease and this year there were only 4 outbreaks. In the detection of infected hives are destroyed by burning all hives in the yard, and farmers receive quittance.

Most of the clinical cases which I observed during the practice in RVC - Vrabnitsa were on pets - dogs and cats. In rare cases came livestock farmers who transported us to field for examination and appropriate therapy. For immunization of dogs we used different vaccines imports from well-known companies as follows:

By the Dutch company Intervet:


"Nobi-vac" puppy DP - vaccinated are dogs between 42nd and 49th day



"Nobi-vac" DHPPI - live, attenuated, lyophilizated vaccine. Applied on the 8the-9th week, and revaccination is made on 12th week.


"Nobi-vac" RL - killed, fluid vaccine. Applied usually as solvent of "Nobi-vac" DHPPI.


"Nobi-vac-Rabies" - killed, fluid vaccine making up to 3 years immunity. Applied annually on dogs passed 3 months age.


By the American company Fort Dodge Animal Health:

"Duramune" DA2P+Pv - modificated, lyophilizated live vaccine.


"Duramune" DA2LP+Pv - modificated, lyophilizated live vaccine, different from the above by the solvent. In the solvent is added Leptospira Bacterin - against Leptospira canicola and Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae.


Most often we applied the following scheme: First vaccination of puppy after passing of 42 days age with "Duramune" DA2P+Pv and 2 to 3 weeks later revaccination with "Duramune" DA2LP+Pv. Follows vaccination of dog annually with "Duramune" DA2LP+Pv. Depending on the anamnesis if the dog is subject to risk of rabdivurus infection, we imposed the owner to come separately for vaccination against rabies. Used "Nobi-vac-Rabies". All the vaccines we kept in refrigerator at temperature 4C, and dissolved them before application (ex tempore). Obligatory requirement which we carried out was detailed clinical examination of the animal before application of vaccine to avoid the risk of immunization of animals in incubation period of infectious disease.

For immunization of cats we had at disposal only vaccine "Felovax - IV", given by the manufacturer as Feline Rhinotracheitis, Calici-Panleucopenia-Chlamidia and Psittaci Vaccine.


Journal 1


For the disease condition of dog, owned by Tsvetan Manolov from Sofia.


Anamnesis: The dog often vomits gastric juice and saliva. Have diarrhea. Last day is fed with cold weenies, and after some hours started to vomit. Diarrhea appeared in the morning. Dog is not vaccinated, but did not suffer until now. Grown in flat and since recently is taken out.


Current condition: It is about dog 6 months old, breed poodle, with black fur color. Average constitution, good feed, general bearing is depressed. Fur is without shine, ruffled and goose bumped, clotted and smudged in the area of the anus. Conjunctives are slightly reddish, without swell, fur and extrudes. Internal body temperature is 40,9C.


Cardio-vascular system: Pulse - 108 beats per minute, frequent, weak, rhythmic.

Respiratory system: Breathe - 26 breath movements per minute.

Digestive system: During palpation in abdomen area has vomiting calls. Felt are increased mesentery lymph nodes, around the anus is smudged with faeces containing bloody drags.


Most probably it's about parvovirosis but we did not have the opportunity to make laboratory test for proof the presence of CPV-2 and the diagnosis can not be set for sure.


Diagnosis: Gastroenteritis obs. parvovirosis.




Glucosa 5% 250,0 ml intravenously.

Vitamin C 3,0 ml intravenously.

Vitamin B1 3,0 ml intravenously.

Vetramycin 3,0 ml subcutaneously.

Ultrasol 2,0 ml subcutaneously.


Venous infusions of 5% glucose solution continued for 5 days, the first 3 days 2 times a day (morning and evening), and the last 2 days only once a day. Chemotherapy continued also 5 day, till disappearance of symptoms. Bespoke to the owner to leave the dog water at will, preferably rice, or tea by chamomile, lime. If the animal does not drink alone, to infuse with syringe 50-60 ml 5-6 times a day.

Following held treatment the dog has recovered and regained its appetite. Internal body temperature was 38,7. Diarrhea was not observed. Suggested to the owners to vaccinate the dog in the future.


Journal 2


For the disease condition of 4 pigs, owned by Ilian Ivanov from Sofia, Gorublyane neighborhood.


Anamnesis: Farmer have pigsty with 8 pigs, but some of them recently have no appetite, sway during movement, show concern and squeal with hoarse voice. Weaned before 11 days and are fed with concentrated fodder. It is not injected serum preventively against oedema disease.


Current condition: It is about 4 pigs, 62 days old, 3 male and 1 female, breed Great White, good feed with strong constitution. Pigs are with unsure reel gait, hardly stay up, can not squeal. Eyelids are swollen, conjunctives are reddish, have clear serous extrudes by the medial eye edge, two of the pigs have swell in the area of the gullet. Internal body temperature is in the normal range. Pulse is slightly frequent, normal by strong and rhythm. Breathe is skin deep by abdominal type, slightly frequent. Faeces are macerated.


Diagnosis: Oedema disease.


Treatment: Injection of Serum oedema disease - 40ml per pig. Magnesium sulfas 40,0, internally. Sulfaguanidinum 3,0 internally, morning and evening. Vitamin AD3 2 ml intramuscular. Hungry diet of pigs for 24 hours, as then feed with yoghurt and barley mash.

On the next day one of the pigs was dead. In the made autopsy we found subcutaneous swelling in the head area, diffuse reddish gastric mucosa and thicken stomach wall. Mucosa of colon was swollen with jelly consistency. Mesenteric lymph nodes were enlarged. Shell of internal organs had small hemorrhage. The finding confirmed the diagnosis set on basis clinical signs.

We continued treatment of the remaining 3 pigs to their full recovery.


Journal 3


For the disease condition of dog owned by Peter Kirilov from Sofia.


Anamnesis: The dog is restless. Skin around the clutches has fallen off, owners presume it is by the walk of the dog on asphalt.


Current condition: It is about dog 6 years old, male gender, Kershaw breed, with brown fur color. Average constitution, with good feed and live temperament. Fur is smooth, with brilliance. In the area of clutches are seen small oval naked spots, covered with flakes and gray-white scabs. Around the spots the skin deep looks like buffed. Skin elasticity is normal. Internal body temperature - 38,7C, Conjunctives - normal color, without swell, fur and extrudes.


Cardio-vascular system: Pulse - 92 beats per minute.

Respiratory, digestive, excretory and nervous system - without specifics.


In taken material from the affected skin areas, on the border between healthy and damaged tissue, microscopic are seen spores of Microsporum canum. In the clinic there was no mercury lamp with Wood filter to monitor fur under Wood light and proof of the cause by the luminescent method, but the microscopic finding was clear enough.


Diagnosis: Microsporia.


Treatment: Spread affected areas with Zoomycol and Sporil, once a day for 5 days:





D. S. Externally, for spread.


Journal 4


For the disease condition of cat, owned by Tzvetanka Vlahova from Sofia.


Anamnesis: Cat is restless for 2 weeks, claws permanently in the in the head area, around the ears, behind the neck, around the tail and abdomen, where the fur is fallen off. Treated against scab with antiparasitic shampoo, but healing effect is not achieved.


Current condition: It is about cat, 4 years old, female gender, Saint Birman breed. Constitution - average, feed - good, temperament - sanguine. Fur is with lost brilliance. In the area of the muzzle, around the eyes, around the ears, behind the neck, around the tail and on the abdomen are seen naked oval fields, which have in the center small crusts, skin is reddish, and hair in the periphery are very short. Skin elasticity is normal. Internal body temperature - 39,3C, Conjunctives - normal color, without swell, fur and extrudes.


Cardio-vascular system: Pulse - 125 beats per minute.

Respiratory, digestive, excretory and nervous system - without specifics.


In the taken material from the changed skin areas on the border between healthy and damaged tissue, microscopic are seen spores of fungus from genus Trichophyton.


Diagnosis: Trychophytia (Herpes tonsurans).


Treatment: Because of the ample affect of the skin, therapy only with local unguents was questionable, thus we went to active immunotherapy - vaccination with 2 doses of the vaccine Trichopelen, in 14 days, with parallel treatment of affected sections, separately in different days, with Zoomycol and Sporil (Treatment at once of large areas have risk of intoxication). Vaccine is applied intramuscular.

After the second application of the vaccine the naked fields were significantly less in area, and in some locations was seen growth of new fur. Itch was gone. Bespoke with the owners to smear the affected areas until complete healing of the animal.


Journal 5


For the disease condition of dog, owned by Vasil Delchev from Sofia.


Anamnesis: The dog has no appetite, the nose constantly leaks snots, from time to time vomits, eyes are teared. Not vaccinated until now. In the neighborhood there are no other sick dogs.


Current condition: It is about dog, male gender, 7 years old, doberman breed, with dark brown and yellowish on the abdomen fur color. Constitution - average, feed - bad, temperament - choleric, general bearing - compulsory. Fur is without brilliance. Skin elasticity - reduced. Skin temperature is not properly allocated - head is heater, and the limbs are cold. Internal body temperature - 39,7C. Conjunctives - dark red, slightly swollen and furred, with serous extrudes (Conjunctivitis).


Cardio-vascular system: Pulse - 131 beats per minute.

Respiratory system: Breath movements - 35 per minute, skin deep, with broken rhythm. Breathe is costal type.

Breathed air has unpleasant smell. From the nasal opening leaks serous pus exudates. During auscultation of lung is heart bronchial breath.

Digestive system: Vomit and smudges from diarrhea faeces around the anus.

Excretory and genital system - without specifics.

Nervous system: Dog is in rigid status, tremors like its cold, although the environment temperature is around 27C. Kyphosis.


Diagnosis: Canine distemper.


Treatment: Infusion of hyper immune serum against canine distemper (import from Russia), in 20 ml, 3 times at intervals of two days, muscle. Treat with Vetramycin - 4,0 ml, subcutaneously, daily during the first week. Clean of the nasal cavity from the exudates with cotton swab irrigated with ethyl alcohol - 70 and iodine. Removal of eye exudes and drops in the eyes Septonex - eye drops, in 12 hours. Fluid therapy with 500,0 ml Glucosa 5%, intravenously. Vitamin C 4,0 ml, intravenously (in the system for infusion). Owners to feed the dog with refection and vitaminised food, and leave water at will, preferably rice, or chamomile, lime, hip tea.


After held treatment the animal had significant improvements. Conjunctivitis had disappeared, no nose leaks, internal body temperature decreased to 38,7C, but the dog still had tremor. We informed the owners that most probably the tremor will remain permanently, on which they remained apparently dissatisfied and went out, telling us that they will seek another more competent veterinarian, who will be able to heal the tremor.


Journal 6


For the disease condition of dog, owned by Ivanka Todorova from Sofia.


Anamnesis: Dogs is inadequate since several days, has decreased appetite, but increased thirst.


Current condition: It is about dog, male gender, 8 years old, German Shepherd breed, with brown fur color and black back. Constitution - weak, feed - bad, temperament - melancholic, general bearing - depressed. Fur is without brilliance. Skin temperature is properly allocated. Skin elasticity - slightly reduced. Internal body temperature - 39,4C. Conjunctives - reddish, with serous extrudes.

In external review is seen highly enlarged scrotum bag. We suspected brucellosis, that is why took 10 ml blood in flake, with filled in advance heparin. Sent the blood for examination to NNIDVMI with suspicion for brucellosis. On the next day we received positive result for brucellosis.


Diagnosis: Brucellosis.


Treatment: The disease is dangerous also for humans. After we spoke to the owners about the risk for them, needed castration and the expensive and insecure therapy, the agreed the dog to be destroyed.























Surgery diseases are common in the field, fact which was confirmed during my graduate practice, where I observed many clinical cases treated with surgical methods, on big as well as on small animals.

During first part of the practice, held in RVC - Vrabnitsa, the main contingent patients were pets, dogs and cats.

Surgery department is located at the second floor and consists of two working rooms for aseptic and septic surgery and a separate room for X-Ray. In practice and in the hall for septic surgery were made abdominal and other aseptic operations. Worker in the department aimed to respect all the rules of aseptic and antiseptic, as long as their options allow. In the rooms there were bactericide lamps which were put on after end of the working day, until the morning. Instrument was sterilized by high temperature - boiling, immediately before the operation. There were no inhalation anesthesia apparatus, so we worked only with venous anesthesia by various schemes. The main operations done by us were castrations of male and female dogs and cats, ear cropping, puncture of urinary bladder and others. Often were observed patients with fractures, wounds and tumors.

Third part of the practice was held in the territory of Gorubliane neighborhood where were present also livestock animals, mainly cattle and pigs. We did mainly castrations and processes of wounds, pruning of hooves and treatment of ulcers ungulates.

Main surgical interventions which we did were the following:


Journal 1


For the disease condition of dog, owned by Kalina Ilieva from Sofia.


Anamnesis: Seven days ago the dog was bitten in the abdominal area, consequence of that the guts dropped out. Veterinarians from the clinic repositioned the guts and seamed the abdominal cavity. Feed is with chicken liver, but this morning it had vomit exertions from which the stitches broke and the guts dropped out again. Owner has suspicion about attempt of poisoning the animal.


Current condition: It is about dog, male gender, at around 4 years, unspecified breed, with light brown fur color. Constitution - weak, feed - bad, weight around 12 kilograms, temperament - can not be determined. Strongly depressed general condition. Dropped guts are very red, with hyperemia and heated.


Diagnosis: Prolapsus intestinorum. Peritonitis.


Treatment: Immediately applied fluid therapy - intravenous infusion of 400,0 ml 5% glucose solution, to prevent from hemorrhagic shock and eventually death of the animal. Along applied anesthesia with Sodium Thiopental 2,5% - around 6ml, intravenously (On needle). Then we cleaned the guts with physiological solution and removed the entered dirt - soil, stones, flies. On the wound ends was formed huge amount of detritus mass, which we removed to healthy tissue, which strongly reduced the volume of the abdominal cavity, after the closure. After repeated clean of the guts with physiological solution, we went to the reposition of the guts in the abdomen cavity. Following the entire reposition of the guts, after small pressure neared the wound edges and join together with two continuous knot stitches, and put drainage tube for the peritoneum. Skin we stitched with horizontal U-shaped stitch and fixed the tube to the skin with fixation stitch. Application in the peritoneal gap content of two syringes of 10,0 ml with solution of gentamycine. Applied antibiotics parenterally - 2,0 ml Vetramycin, subcutaneosly.

Postoperative period: daily foment of peritoneum with 20,0 ml antibiotic solution, for treatment of the peritonitis. Vetramycin 1,5 ml, subcutaneously in duration of 6 day. Gran liquid food - bouillons, brews.

After one week the animal was in improved condition, but still could not move alone. After a further 1 week the peritonitis was gone. Removed the drainage tube and closed the abdominal cavity. After about 20 days of the operation the animal was in good condition, feed alone, but it was obvious that it had severe disease. Removed the threads in which in the wound was seen enormous unformed cicatrix.


Journal 2


For made operation of dog, owned by Ivan Zahariev from Sofia.


Anamnesis: Owners grow the animal in flat and the frequent heats harass them and the neighbors and they want it spayed.


Current condition: It is about female dog, 7 years old, Great Dane breed, with light yellow fur and black muzzle. Constitution - average, feed - good, with weight about 50 kilograms, temperament - phlegmatic, normal general bearing. Internal body temperature - 38,7C. Conjunctives - light red, without swell, fur and extrudes. Pulse - 66 beats per minute, rhythmic, strong, full, hard. Breath movement - 18 per minute.


Operation: Ovarihysteroectomia.



Atropini sulfas 1,2 ml, subcutaneously.

Rometar 3,0 ml, intramuscular.

Kalipsol 4,2 ml, intramuscular.


Course of the operation: Prepared through shaving the area for median laparotomy. Fixed the animal in back lie position with tensioned and fixed the limbs to the operation table. Cleaned with soap and after drying us antisepsis with iodine tincture. Made caudal median laparoscopy of the animal which uncovered the genitourinary organs. Massaged the urinary bladder until emptying its contents. After that with fingers is removed one of the uterus corns and by it going to the mesovarium. Caudal to the blood vessels of the ovary is perforated with haemostatic pincer and through it are set three pincers. Follows cut between the first and the second pincer, and between the second and third pincers cut after setting of ligature. After ensured that there are not hemorrhage, we made the same intervention with the another uterus corn. Finally we set ligature of the uterus body, slightly in front of cervix, and removed the whole uterus body. At the end ligatured the main blood vessels of the uterus - two uterine arteries and after we were ensured there is nowhere hemorrhage, went to closure of the abdominal cavity. Closed with interrupted stitches on the white line, then the subcutaneous connective tissue with continuous intradermal stitch and at the end the skin with interrupted horizontal U-shaped stitch. At the end we applied antiseptic of the stitched wound - antisepsis with swab irrigated with ethyl alcohol - 70.

Postoperative period: Preventive treatment with Vetramycin 5,0 ml, subcutaneously, for 3 days. Warned the owners that the animal is prone to obesity and to not feed it heavy. After 12 day we removed the threads, in which there were no complications and the wound was knit together normally.


Journal 3


For the disease condition of dog owned by Rosen Nikolov from Sofia.


Anamnesis: Since about a year the dog regularly is with inflammated anal glands, often were forced to squeeze them. In the last months started limp and to whine when defecating. Treated with antibiotics and dexamethason, but the effect have been short.


Current condition: It is about dog, 5 years old, Siberian Husky breed, with silver-grey and black fur color. Constitution - average, feed - good, with weight about 25 kilograms, temperament - sanguine, slightly depressed general bearing. Internal body temperature - 39,4C. Conjunctives - pink, without swell, fur and extrudes. Pulse - 97 beats per minute, rhythmic, strong, full, hard. Breath movements - 24 per minute. Have stiff gait.


Diagnosis: Adenitis circumanalis chronica.


Treatment: Extirpatio sinuum paraanalium.

Bespoke to the owners to leave the animal hungry on the next day, on which me did the intervention. Before the operation we made enema and only after that went to the real part of the treatment.



Atropini sulfas 0,8 ml subcutaneously.

Rometar 2,1 ml intramuscular.

Kalipsol 3,2 ml intramuscular.


Course of the operation: Prepared the area after careful shave and fixated the patient in abdominal lie position, cleaned with soap and dried with lignin. Antisepsis with Hibitan, and then again with iodine tincture. Pressed out the glands and with the help of curve blunt needle filled them with previously melted paraffin. After fixation of the paraffin, was made 2 cm section in the most projected part of the right anal sac. Then obtuse removal of the anal sphincter, after which the sac was uncovered for approach. The sac was also removed obtuse and then ligature, possibly most closely to the rectum, and the canal was cut. After we ensured there is no hemorrhage, closed the wound with interrupted knotted stitches. Repeated the same intervention also with the left anal sac. After both wounds were closed, antisepsis with cotton swab irrigated with ethyl alcohol - 70.

Postoperative period: Preventive treatment with antibiotics - Vetramycin 2,5 ml, subcutaneously, for 3 days. In the last application, the animal had slight healed condition, internal body temperature had decreased to 38,7C, and the gait was almost completely normalized. After 10 days removed the threads. The animal was in good healthy condition.


Journal 4


For made operation of dog, Owned by Nikolay Todorov from Sofia.


Anamnesis: The dog is aggressive, bites. Owners want it neutered and removed canine teethes


Current condition: It is about dog, age 2 years, pincher breed, with black fur color and yellow spots on the abdomen and around the limbs. Constitution - average, feed - good, with weight around 10 kilograms, temperament - choleric, excitation general bearing. Internal body temperature - 38,8C. Conjunctives - normal color, without swell, fur and extrudes. Pulse - 112 beats per minute, rhythmic. Respiratory movements - 24 for one minute.


Operation: Castratio (Orhiectomia). Extractio dentium caninorum.



Atropini sulfas 0,3 ml, subcutaneously.

Rometar 1,0 ml, intramuscular.

Kalipsol 2,0 ml, intramuscular.


Course of operation: Shaved the hair around the scrotal sack and antisepsis the area with iodine tincture. After grasp of the neck of the scrotum and stretch of the skin of the testis, are made two parallel to raphe scroti sections. Follows exemption of tunica vaginalis from the surrounding loose connective tissue, and fixation of spermatic cord with haemostatic pincer. Set is stitched ligature and the vaginal projection is cut, along with the included in it vessels, muscles and formations. Follows fixation with hand and relaxation of the pincer. If there is no hemorrhage after several second the spermatic cord is dropped back in the abdominal cavity. With another testis is acted by analogical way. At the end in every half we put norsulfazol dust and went to the removal of the teeth. First we unlay the gingiva around the neck of the left canine tooth, then with forceps shake the tooth till disappearance of any resistance in pulling and finally removed it with ease. With the right canine tooth acted by the same way. Tampon the alveolar gaps with cotton, till total homeostasis.

Postoperative period: Preventive treatment with Vetramycin 1,0 ml subcutaneously, for 2 days. Feed with soft food and bouillons.


Journal 5


For made operation of dog, owned by Tzveta Apostolova from Sofia.


Anamnesis: The dog is boxer breed and the owners want his ears cut.


Current condition: It is about dog, male gender, 10 weeks old, boxer breed. Constitution - average, feed - very good, with weight about 10 kilograms, temperament - choleric, normal general bearing. Internal body temperature - 38,9C. Conjunctives - ping, without swell, fur and extrudes. Pulse - 92 beats per minute, rhythmic. Respiratory movements - 22 for one minute.


Operation: Abreviatio auricularum.



Atropini sulfas 0,3 ml, subcutaneously.

Rometar 1,0 ml, intramuscular.

Kalipsol 2,0 ml, intramuscular.


Course of operation: Fixated the animal in thoracal-abdominal position and wad the external auditory canals of the eras with swabs. Antisepsis of the operative area with iodine tincture. After that the ears neared with their external surfaces and over the median line of the head. With slight section of the skin at the front edge of the ear helixes was marked the height of the cut (1/3rd of the ear helix). After that we set ear slip knots for boxer and tightened them. With scalpel was cut the periphery part of the ear helix of both ears. Then removal of the slip knots and cut of the formed apices with scissors, then the skin edges were dragged out till cover of the cartilage and close of the wound with continuous knotted stitch. Finally after we processed the wounds with ethyl spiritus - 70, bandaged the ears with shared roller and tightened to close their apices.

Postoperative period: Removal of the threads after 10 days.


Journal 6


For the disease condition of cow owned by Tzvyatko Iliev from Kokalyane village.


Anamnesis: The animal limps with the rear left foot. Had yield of milk 30-32 liters, but recently it decreased to 25 liters, even lower, although the quantity and quality of the fodder were not lowered. The owner proposes that the animal had cut on glass. In the same shed there are two more cows, but they don't limp and are with normal yield of milk. Feeds them mostly with concentrated fodder and straw. Rarely leads out them to graze.


Current condition: It is about cow 4 years old, with estimated weight 600 kilograms, Holstein breed with milk purpose. Constitution - strong, feed - very good, temperament - sanguine, general bearing - normal. Fur is goose bumped, without brilliance. Skin elasticity - saved. Skin temperature - properly allocated. Conjunctives - dark pink, without swell, fur and extrudes. Internal body temperature - 38,5C. Pulse - 75 beats per minute. Respiratory movements - 24 beats per minute, rhythmic. During walk of the animal is seen average antalgic limp with the rear left limb - steps on the gear and does not burden it fully. On the other limbs is seen excessive growth of the corn capsule of the hoofs in the area of the gear (shed hoofs). In examination of the affected limb we found darker area in the food at the external hoof, with size of about 20 stotinki coin. When clipping the area with nippers, the animal reacts painfully.


Diagnosis: Pododermatitis solearis circumscripta purulenta chronica membri pelvini sinister.


Treatment: Fixated the cow in frame and raised the rear left limb. Applied infiltration anesthesia in the area of the hoof with Lidocaine 1%. Then with the help of curette knife removed the necrotic tissues in the ulcer, to healthy tissue. Washed out the formed sequester with potassium permanganate 2% solution and after drying filled it with norsulfazol dust. After that bandaged the hoof with roller and smeared it with pine tar. Preventive trimmed the healthy hoofs with pliers for hoof trimming. Injected Teranecron 10,0 ml, subcutaneously. Bespoke to the owner to keep the cow in clean and dry premise, at peace. Preventive suggested walking the other cows of which we also trimmed the hoofs. After 14 days removed the roller bandage and on the place of the ulcer was seen new formed corn. The limping was gone.



Obstetrics-gynaecology diseases are large problem for the present stock-breeding. Untimely fertilization, repeats and sterility in the animal pulled through gynaecology diseases bring large loses to the farmers. Especially well this is obvious in the small family farms, with one-two cows, where untimely fertilization or sterility of the animals, brings heavy financial loses for the farmers and unreturned of the spent fund for fodder and consumable. Not smaller are the loses in the big farms, where is seen tendency for raise of the sterility. On another side not rare are the cases in which luxury breed female dogs are fertilized by random breed male dogs. The resulted reluctant fetuses are unattractive for eventual buyers, and also not allowed to cynology exhibitions, which urges the owners to go to veterinarian with request to interrupt the pregnancy. Big problem are also the mastitis in milking animals, which decrease the milk production and distant the large-scale buyers of milk. In the big pig farms and sheep farms is applied synchronization of estrus for bigger efficiency of the events on the reproduction of the animals. All exposed facts impose especially good knowledge from the veterinarian of the sexual cycle of the female animals, its regulation with the hormones of sexual sphere, morphofunctional changes in the organism during the different physiological statuses (pregnancy, lactation, dry period), anatomy and physiology of female genital organs and obstetric-gynaecology diseases. Need is also increase of the qualification of the growers of the animals, with aim to reduce the sterility caused by genital-cyclic disorders (anoestrus, anaphrodisia, quiet estrus) and organization mistakes. With the wide entrance of the artificial insemination, the actuality of the diseases transmitted by genital way (sexual infections) significantly decreased, and the male broods become much more rarity. This however doesn't mean that there are no needs of knowledge in the area of andrology, which are applied in the everyday practice, in the increased role of the genetics and selection of animals.

During the first part of the practice, held in RVC - Vrabnitsa, I observed mostly patients dogs and cats. In these animals most often met diseases are pyometra, hard birth, tumors of milk gland and uterus. Often come owners with desire for castration of the animals, which saves them further problems in estrus and reluctant pregnancy.

During the practice in the area of Gorubliane neighborhood I had the opportunity to be introduced to the obstetrics-gynaecology problems of the livestock animals. In the small farms the animals are milked mostly with hands, but more increases the percentage of machine milked cows. Owners respect all the rules of the asepsis and antisepsis - use clean containers, and bound to wash and dry the udder before milking. Cows are inseminated artificially, by technique inseminator. This significantly reduces the risk of spreading diseases by genital way. Other advantage is also the fact that with the artificial insemination is eased the selection of the animals. The owners have the opportunity for big choice of breed and quality of the brood, according to the wanted productivity, considered with the climatic geography conditions and the possibility for normative feed. Avoided is near family interbreeding, often observed with the presence of few male animals, exploited for longer period, which is widespread practice in livestock farming areas with small farms. In the livestock animals problematic are the held placenta after birth, post birth bedridden, endometrites, persisting yellow body and inflammation of milk gland.


Journal 1


For the obstetrics-gynaecology status of dog, owned by Aneta Todorova from Sofia.


Anamnesis: Before about two months the dog was driven away and ran from the owners for about two days. Then they closed it till disappearance of the estrus. Three weeks ago the dog started acting strangely. Since then have increased appetite and is endearing even to strangers. The abdomen is enlarged, and the milk gland is developed.


Current condition: It is about female dog 7 years old, Doberman breed, weight around 30 kg, with dark brown fur color and yellow abdomen and limbs. Constitution - strong, feed - very good, normal condition. Internal body temperature - 38,7C. Pulse - 85 beats per minute. During inspection is seen enlarged abdomen. Milk glands are also enlarged and in pressure from them leaks dense milk secretion. In palpation of the abdomen are not felt fetuses. After made roentgenography, on the picture we did not see fetus skeletons.


Diagnosis: Pseudograviditatis.


Treatment: Covinan 8,0 ml, subcutaneously, for 4 days. Smear of milk glands with iodine tincture, for three days. Limitation of the food and water of the dog. At the last treatment the lactation had stopped and the patient was visibly restored. Mother behavior was not seen.


Journal 2


For the obstetrics-gynaecology status of cat, owned by Rayna Zhekova from Sofia.


Anamnesis: Later evening the cat started to birth. Dropped two kittens and then continued to have contractions, but till morning have not dropped any other kitten. Until now the cat birthed two times, five and respectively six kittens and had no difficulties.


Current condition: It is about female cat 8 years old, with weight about 4 kilograms, mixed breed. Constitution - average, feed - good. Condition - relaxed, apathetic. Internal body temperature - 38,9C. During palpation of the abdomen area are felt fetuses.


Diagnosis: Atonia uteri. Retentio feti.


Treatment: Injected oxytoci 6 UI intramuscular. A little while after that the uterine contractions strengthened and with our help the cat dropped two dead fetuses. We made roentgenography, to exclude presence of more fetuses in the uterus. On the picture were not seen fetal skeletons. Applied general strengthening therapy with 5% solution of glucose - 150 ml, subcutaneously, and 2 ml Vitamin C, subcutaneously.


Journal 3


For the obstetrics-gynaecology status of cow, owned by Iliya Petkov from German village.


Anamnesis: At the morning the owner found the cow given bird, but fallen and can not succeed to raise it on foots. There were expulsions which he dumped, while cleaning the compost. Cow is with high productivity and this is her fourth calve.


Current condition: It is about cow 7 years old with weight about 500 kilograms, Holstein breed with milk purpose. Constitution - strong, feed - very good. General bearing - by force lie down position, with flexed under the body limbs and flabby on the floor heard. Have tremor on the cervical musculature. Eyes are wide open, pupils are dilatated, conjunctives are pale, with slight icteric spice. Internal body temperature - 36,4C. Pulse - 36 beats per minute, weak, soft, thread-like. Respiratory movements - 18 per minute. There is no rumination, reflexes are slowed, no active movements.


Diagnosis: Coma puerperalis.


Treatment: The main in the therapy of the disease is restoration of the level of calcium in the organism.


Ca borogluconicum 20 % 100,0 ml (1 phial) intravenously.

Glucocofeini 25,0 ml intravenously.

Glucosa 40% 400,0 ml intravenously.

Novacoc forte 100,0 ml intravenously.

Vitamin C 30,0 ml intravenously.


After about 30 minutes from the application of the officinal means, the cow started to move, and slightly later stand upright on limbs. Continued the treatment with the same medicines for two days more and the animal restored fully.


Journal 4


For the obstetrics-gynaecology status of dog, owned by Matrin Ivanov from Sofia.


Anamnesis: The dog is for several days indisposed, do not feeds, vomits and have diarrhea. From the vagina leaks brown liquid. Owners use Covinan for suppression of estrus of the animal and till now is not fertilized.


Current condition: It is about female dog, 7,5 years old, Cocker Spaniel breed, with weight about 20 kilograms, with auburn fur color. Constitution - average, feed - good, depressed condition. Internal body temperature - 39,9C. Conjunctives - reddish, without swell, fur and extrudes. Pulse - 115 beats per minute. During inspection are seen leaks from the vagina with chocolate-brown color, sparse consistency and unpleasant smell. During palpation of the abdomen are felt swallowed, slightly fluctuating forms.

White blood picture - Leukocytes - 12 mln./ml. We made roentgenography for further specifying of the diagnose. On the roentgen picture in lateral projection is seen intensive oval homogeneous shadow in the caudo-ventral part of the abdominal cavity. In dorso-vetral projection is seen shadow in the area of two corneas of the uterus.


Diagnosis: Pyometra.


Treatment: Ovarihysteroectomia.



Atropini sulfas 0,6 ml, subcutaneously.

Rometar 1,5 ml, intramuscular.

Kalipsol 2,0 ml, intramuscular.


Course of operation: After preparation of the field for median laparotomy, fixated the animal in back lie position with stretched and fixated to the operation table limbs. Then washed with soap and dried the field for operation approach. Antisepsis with iodine and went to performance of caudal median laparotomy, through sequential section of skin, under skin connective tissue, superficies fascia and white line. After uncovering of the urine-genital organs for approach, massaged the urinal bladder till emptying of its content. Witnessed was strongly enlarged uterus. Excerpted first the left, then the right corn of the uterus. Set haemostatic nipper in the area of the cervix of uterus. Then was set ligature in front of left ovaries, embracing the blood vessels, and then in frond of the right. Set is section between the ovaries and the ligature, and bluntly removed the mesentery. Extracted the uterus corns and put them between the rear limbs of the animal. After we ensured there is no hemorrhages set two stitched ligatures in the area of the cervix of the uterus, in front of the set nippers. Removed the nipper, sectioned the uterus body and removed entirely the uterus. Stitched the free part of the uterus with stitch of Plahotin-Sadovski and went to closure of the abdominal cavity. Closed with interrupted stitches on the white line, then subcutaneous connective tissue with continuous intradermal stitch and at the end the skin with interrupted horizontal U-shaped stitch. Finally applied antisepsis of the stitched wound - Smear with swab, soaked with ethyl alcohol - 70.


Postoperative period: Injected Vetramycin 3,0 ml, subcutaneously, for 5 days. After 12 days removed the threads. Operation wound was knit together normally.


Original Bulgarian version

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